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Vol. 43. Num. 4.
Pages 193-260 (May 2019)
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Vol. 43. Num. 4.
Pages 193-260 (May 2019)
Original
DOI: 10.1016/j.medine.2019.03.006
Application of a mindfulness program among healthcare professionals in an intensive care unit: Effect on burnout, empathy and self-compassion
Aplicación de un programa de mindfulness en profesionales de un servicio de medicina intensiva. Efecto sobre el burnout, la empatía y la autocompasión
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R.M. Gracia Gozaloa,b,
Corresponding author
rmgracia@vhebron.net

Corresponding author.
, J.M. Ferrer Tarrésc, A. Ayora Ayorad, M. Alonso Herrerod, A. Amutio Kareagae, R. Ferrer Rocaa,b
a Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
b Grupo de Investigación de Shock, Disfunción Orgánica y Resucitación (SODIR-VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
c Dirección de Calidad, Docencia e Investigación, Fundació Sanitària de Mollet, Mollet del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain
d Unidad de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
e Departamento de Psicología Social y Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), San Sebastián, Spain
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Figures (2)
Tables (3)
Table 1. Program structure and contents.
Table 2. Sociodemographic and occupational characteristics of the participants and non-participants.
Table 3. Summary of initial (baseline) scores of the different questionnaires and their sub-factors between participants and non-participants.
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Abstract
Objective

To evaluate the effect of a mindfulness training program on the levels of burnout, mindfulness, empathy and self-compassion among healthcare professionals in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital.

Design

A longitudinal study with an intrasubject pre–post intervention design was carried out.

Setting

Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital.

Participants

A total of 32 subjects (physicians, nurses and nursing assistants) participated in the study.

Intervention

A clinical session/workshop was held on the practice of mindfulness and its usefulness. The possibility of following an 8-week training program with specifically designed short guided practices supported by a virtual community based on a WhatsApp group was offered. A weekly proposal in audio and text format and daily reminders with stimulating messages of practice were sent.

Main measurements

Various psychometric measures were self-reported: burnout (MBI), mindfulness (FFMQ), empathy (Jefferson) and self-compassion (SCS), before and after the training program. Demographic and workplace variables were also compiled.

Results

Among the factors affecting burnout, the level of emotional exhaustion decreased (−3.78 points; p=0.012), mindfulness levels measured by the FFMQ were not globally modified, though “observation” and “non-reacting” factors increased. Empathy was not modified, and self-compassion levels increased (3.7 points; p=0.001). Satisfaction and program adherence levels were very high.

Conclusions

In the population described, this program showed a decrease in emotional exhaustion and an increase in self-compassion — these being factors that can produce well-being and exert a positive impact upon burnout in this vulnerable group.

Keywords:
Mindfulness
Burnout
Health care professionals
Critical care
Resumen
Objetivo

Evaluar el efecto de un programa de entrenamiento en mindfulness sobre el burnout, el mindfulness, la empatía y la autocompasión en profesionales de la salud de un servicio de medicina intensiva de un hospital terciario.

Diseño

Estudio longitudinal de diseño intrasujeto pre-post intervención.

Ámbito

Servicio de medicina intensiva de un hospital de tercer nivel de referencia.

Participantes

Treinta y dos participantes (médicos, enfermeras y técnicos auxiliares de enfermería).

Intervención

Se presentó la intervención en forma de sesión clínica/taller acerca de la práctica de mindfulness y sus utilidades. Se ofreció la posibilidad de seguir un programa de entrenamiento de 8 semanas en prácticas breves guiadas diseñado específicamente y creando una comunidad virtual mediante un grupo de WhatsApp. Se envió una propuesta semanal en formato audio y texto y recordatorios diarios y mensajes estimulantes de la práctica.

Variables principales

Se realizaron distintas mediciones psicométricas mediante autocuestionarios: Burnout (MBI), mindfulness (FFMQ), empatía (Jefferson) y autocompasión (SCS) antes y después del seguimiento del programa y variables sociodemográficas y laborales.

Resultados

En los factores que inciden sobre el burnout disminuyó el nivel de cansancio emocional (−3,78 puntos, p=0,012). Los niveles de mindfulness mediante FFMQ no se modificaron globalmente, aunque aumentaron los factores «observación» y «ausencia de reactividad». La empatía no se vio modificada y se incrementaron los niveles de autocompasión (3,7 puntos, p=0,001). Los niveles de satisfacción y seguimiento del programa fueron muy altos.

Conclusiones

Este programa, en la población descrita, mostró un descenso del cansancio emocional y un aumento de la autocompasión, factores que pueden producir bienestar e incidir en el burnout de este colectivo vulnerable.

Palabras clave:
Conciencia plena
Atención plena
Desgaste profesional
Profesionales sanitarios
Medicina intensiva

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