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Vol. 43. Issue 6.
Pages 362-372 (August - September 2019)
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Vol. 43. Issue 6.
Pages 362-372 (August - September 2019)
Review
DOI: 10.1016/j.medine.2019.05.003
Experimental models in traumatic brain injury: From animal models to in vitro assays
Principales modelos experimentales de traumatismo craneoencefálico: de la preclínica a los modelos in vitro
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L. Semperea, A. Rodríguez-Rodríguezb, L. Boyeroa, J.J. Egea-Guerrerob,
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a Laboratorio de Neurocríticos, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, IBIS/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
b Unidad de Neurocríticos, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, IBIS/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
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Table 1. Classification of models of animal experimentation based on direct or indirect impact, type of lesion, and pathophysiology.
Abstract

Traumatic brain Injury (TBI) is a major public healthcare concern, affecting people of all ages. Despite advances in the diagnosis, monitoring and clinical management of TBI, many unresolved questions remain regarding its physiopathology. In an attempt to understand the pathological features of TBI and to evaluate single potential therapeutic strategies, various animal models have been developed to simulate the mechanisms of action and the clinical manifestations of TBI patients. In turn, each model represents a specific type of trauma and evaluates a specific physiopathological aspect of the cascade triggered as a result of TBI.

This review describes the main experimental models currently available referred to TBI and their possible application to the clinical setting.

Keywords:
Traumatic brain injury
Head injury
Experimental models
Animal models
Resumen

El traumatismo craneoencefálico (TCE) es una de las patologías más importantes en la actualidad, ya que afecta a un alto porcentaje de individuos de todas las edades. A pesar de los avances en el campo del diagnóstico, la monitorización y el tratamiento del TCE, quedan importantes cuestiones sin resolver alrededor de la fisiopatología de este tipo de traumatismo. Con el fin de profundizar en dicho conocimiento y poder evaluar y aplicar un posible tratamiento que resulte eficaz para estos pacientes, se han desarrollado diferentes modelos experimentales que simulan los mecanismos de acción y el cuadro clínico del TCE. A su vez, cada modelo representa un determinado tipo de traumatismo y evalúa un aspecto concreto de la cascada fisiopatológica desencadenada tras el TCE.

El objetivo de este trabajo es detallar los principales modelos experimentales que abordan la lesión cerebral tras un TCE, así como su potencial traslación a la práctica clínica diaria.

Palabras clave:
Traumatismo craneoencefálico
Lesión cerebral
Modelos experimentales
Animales de experimentación

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