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Vol. 42. Num. 9.December 2018
Pages e23-e28Pages 517-572
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Vol. 42. Num. 9.December 2018
Pages e23-e28Pages 517-572
Series in Intensive Medicine: Methodological update in Medicina Intensiva
DOI: 10.1016/j.medine.2018.10.001
Frequent methodological errors in clinical research
Errores metodológicos frecuentes en la investigación clínica
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L.C. Silva Aycaguer
Escuela Nacional de Salud Pública de Cuba, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
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Abstract

Several errors that are frequently present in clinical research are listed, discussed and illustrated. A distinction is made between what can be considered an “error” arising from ignorance or neglect, from what stems from a lack of integrity of researchers, although it is recognized and documented that it is not easy to establish when we are in a case and when in another. The work does not intend to make an exhaustive inventory of such problems, but focuses on those that, while frequent, are usually less evident or less marked in the various lists that have been published with this type of problems. It has been a decision to develop in detail the examples that illustrate the problems identified, instead of making a list of errors accompanied by an epidermal description of their characteristics.

Keywords:
Clinical trials
Statistical significance tests
Fraud
Selection bias
Sample size
Predatory journals
Resumen

Se enumeran, discuten e ilustran diversos errores que se presentan con frecuencia en la investigación clínica. Se hace una distinción entre lo que puede considerarse un «error» surgido de la ignorancia o el descuido, de aquello que dimana de una falta de integridad de los investigadores, aunque se reconoce y documenta que no es fácil establecer cuándo estamos en un caso y cuándo en otro. El trabajo no se propone hacer un inventario exhaustivo de tales pifias, sino que se concentra en aquellas que, sin dejar de ser frecuentes, suelen ser menos evidentes o menos señaladas en los diversos listados que se han publicado con este tipo de problemas. Se ha optado por desarrollar en detalle los ejemplos que ilustran los problemas señalados en lugar de hacer una relación de errores acompañados de una descripción epidérmica de sus características.

Palabras clave:
Ensayos clínicos
Pruebas de significación estadística
Fraude
Sesgo de selección
Tamaño muestral
Revistas depredadoras

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