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Vol. 35. Issue 3.
Pages 179-185 (January 2011)
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Vol. 35. Issue 3.
Pages 179-185 (January 2011)
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Acute viral infections in immunocompetent patients
Infecciones virales graves en pacientes inmunocompetentes
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A. Díaza, R. Zaragozab,
Corresponding author
zaragozaraf@gva.es

Corresponding author.
, R. Granadac, M. Salavertd
a Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain
b Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Valencia, Spain
c Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
d Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain
Article information
Abstract

Viruses play a significant role in serious infections in adults and sometimes lead to the need for hospitalization and admission to intensive care units, especially in cases of severe respiratory distress or encephalopathy. Influenza and parainfluenza viruses, syncytial respiratory virus, herpes viruses and adenovirures are the most frequent causes of these severe infections. A review of the literature has been performed in order to update the epidemiology, pathogenesis and therapeutic approach of viral infections affecting immunocompetent patients. Furthermore, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. It is mainly a bacterial disease, although the potential role of viruses as pathogens or copathogens in VAP is under discussion. Therefore, a brief review of the potential pathogenic role of viruses in VAP has also been performed.

Keywords:
Viral infections
Immunocompetent
ARDS
Intensive Care Unit
Resumen

Los virus tienen un papel importante dentro de las infecciones graves en los pacientes adultos, que en algunas ocasiones llegan a necesitar hospitalización e ingreso en unidades de cuidados intensivos, especialmente en casos de síndrome de distrés respiratorio del adulto y encefalitis. Las infecciones por virus influenza y parainfluenza, virus sincitial respiratorio, herpes virus y adenovirus son las que más frecuentemente causan estos cuadros. Se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura pormenorizada y actualizada de epidemiología, patogénesis, manifestaciones clínicas y aproximación terapéutica de las infecciones virales en pacientes inmunocompetentes. Por otro lado, si bien la neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica tiene como etiología más frecuente las infecciones bacterianas, recientemente el papel de los virus como patógenos en estas infecciones está en debate, por lo que se hace una breve revisión de su papel etiopatogénico en la neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica.

Palabras clave:
Infecciones virales
Inmunocompetente
SDRA
Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos
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Copyright © 2011. Elsevier y Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Critica y Unidades Coronarias
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