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Vol. 35. Issue 2.
Pages 117-125 (January 2011)
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Vol. 35. Issue 2.
Pages 117-125 (January 2011)
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Role of viral infections in immunosuppressed patients
Papel de las infecciones víricas en pacientes inmunodeprimidos
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M. Salaverta, R. Granadab, A. Díazc, R. Zaragozad,
Corresponding author
raf@gva.es

Corresponding author.
a Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain
b Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, l’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
c Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain
d Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Valencia, Spain
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Article information
Abstract

Being a solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient as well as receiving chemotherapy for a malignant hematological disease clearly predispose the subject to a variety of viral infections, both common and opportunistic diseases. The patient may have acquired these infections from the community as well as from the donor organ (donor-derived infections) and/or from reactivation of an endogenous latent virus. Herpes viruses and especially the cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus are among the most common of the opportunistic viral pathogens affecting these patients, in addition to respiratory viruses. Treatment consists in antiviral drug therapies combined with the reduction in the degree of the induced immunosuppression. A review of the literature has been performed in order to update the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and therapeutic approach of the viral infections in these immunocompromised patients.

Keywords:
Viral infection
Cytomegalovirus
Respiratory viruses
Immunodepressed patients
Transplant
Resumen

Ser receptor de un trasplante de órgano sólido, así como recibir tratamiento quimioterápico para una enfermedad hematológica maligna, predispone claramente a padecer infecciones virales tanto comunes como oportunistas, de origen tanto comunitario como procedentes del donante de órganos y/o de una reactivación de un virus latente endógeno. Herpes virus y más especialmente citomegalovirus y virus de Epstein-Barr son los que con más frecuencia afectan a estos enfermos, así como los virus respiratorios. El tratamiento consiste en la combinación de reducir la inmunodepresión inducida junto con tratamiento antiviral. Se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura pormenorizada y actualizada de la epidemiología, la patogenia, las manifestaciones clínicas y la aproximación terapéutica de las infecciones virales en estos enfermos.

Palabras clave:
Infección viral
Citomegalovirus
Virus respiratorios
Pacientes inmunodeprimidos
Trasplante
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