Journal Information
Download PDF
More article options
Original article
Available online 13 May 2024
Postintensive care syndrome in patients and family members. Analysis of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts, with face-to-face follow-up at three months and one year
Síndrome postcuidados intensivos en pacientes y familiares. Análisis de cohortes COVID-19 y no COVID-19, con seguimiento presencial a los tres meses y al año
Carola Giménez-Esparza Vicha,b,
Corresponding author
, Beatriz Oliver Hurtadoa,b, Maria Angeles Relucio Martineza,b, Salomé Sanchez Pinoa,b, Cristina Portillo Requenaa,b, José David Simón Simóna,b, Isabel María Pérez Gómeza,b, Fernando Mario Andrade Rodadoa,b, Fadoua Laghzaoui Harboulia,b, Fernando Javier Sotos Solanoa,b, Carlos Augusto Montenegro Mourea,b, Andrés Carrillo Alcaraza,b
a Hospital Vega Baja Orihuela, Alicante, Spain
b Hospital General Universitario Morales Meseguer, Murcia, Spain
This item has received
Received 02 January 2024. Accepted 12 March 2024
Article information
Full Text
Download PDF
Tables (6)
Table 1. Sociodemographic, clinical, and evolutionary characteristics at the ICU stay.
Table 2. Physical, cognitive, and mental changes at the first post-ICU consultation.
Table 3. Physical and neuropsychological sequelae in second post-ICU consultation.
Table 4. Yearly evolution.
Table 5. Predictive factors of PICS-P.
Table 6. Sociodemographic, clinical, and evolutionary characteristics. Propensity Score Matching Analysis.
Show moreShow less
Additional material (1)

Compare prevalence and profile of post-intensive care patient (P-PICS) and family/caregiver (F-PICS) syndrome in two cohorts (COVID and non-COVID) and analyse risk factors for P-PICS.


Prospective, observational cohort (March 2018–2023), follow-up at three months and one year.


14-bed polyvalent Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Level II Hospital.

Patients or participants

265 patients and 209 relatives. Inclusion criteria patients: age > 18 years, mechanical ventilation > 48 h, ICU stay > 5 days, delirium, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac arrest. Inclusion criteria family: those who attended.


Follow-up 3 months and 1 year after hospital discharge.

Main variables of interest

Patients: sociodemographic, clinical, evolutive, physical, psychological and cognitive alterations, dependency degree and quality of life. Main caregivers: mental state and physical overload.


64.9% PICS-P, no differences between groups. COVID patients more physical alterations than non-COVID (P = .028). These more functional deterioration (P = .005), poorer quality of life (P = .003), higher nutritional alterations (P = .004) and cognitive deterioration (P < .001). 19.1% PICS-F, more frequent in relatives of non-COVID patients (17.6% vs. 5.5%; P = .013). Independent predictors of PICS-P: first years of the study (OR: 0.484), higher comorbidity (OR: 1.158), delirium (OR: 2.935), several reasons for being included (OR: 3.171) and midazolam (OR: 4.265).


Prevalence PICS-P and PICS-F between both cohorts was similar. Main factors associated with the development of SPCI-P were: higher comorbidity, delirium, midazolan, inclusion for more than one reason and during the first years.

Post-intensive care syndrome
Primary caregiver
Physical sphere
Cognitive sphere
Psychic sphere
Quality of life

Comparar prevalencia y características del síndrome post-cuidados intensivos paciente (SPCI-P) y familiar/cuidador (SPCI-F) en dos cohortes (COVID y no COVID) y analizar factores riesgo de SPCI-P.


Prospectivo, observacional cohortes (Marzo 2018–2023), seguimiento a tres meses y año.


Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) polivalente 14 camas, Hospital Nivel II.

Pacientes o participantes

Pacientes: 265, familiares: 209. Criterios inclusión pacientes: edad > 18 años, ventilación mecánica > 48 horas, estancia UCI > 5 días, delirium, shock séptico, síndrome distrés respiratorio agudo, parada cardiaca. Criterios inclusión familiares: acudir consulta.


Seguimiento 3 meses y año del alta hospitalaria.

Variables de interés principales

Pacientes: sociodemográficas, clínicas, evolutivas, alteraciones físicas, psíquicas y cognitivas, dependencia y calidad de vida. Familiares: estado mental y sobrecarga física.


SPCI-P 64,9%, sin diferencias entre grupos. Pacientes COVID más alteraciones físicas que los no-COVID (P =,028). Estos últimos más deterioro funcional (P =,005), peor calidad de vida (P =,003), más alteraciones nutricionales (P =,004) y deterioro cognitivo (P <,001). 19,1% SPCI-F, más frecuente en familiares de pacientes no COVID (17,6% vs 5,5%; P =,013). Factores predictivos independientes de SPCI-P: primeros años estudio (OR: 0,484), mayor comorbilidad (OR: 1,158), delirium (OR: 2,935), varios motivos de inclusión consulta (OR: 3,171) y midazolan (OR: 4,265).


Prevalencia de SPCI-P y SPCI-F similar en ambas cohortes. Principales factores asociados a SPCI-P: mayor comorbilidad, delirium, midazolan, haber sido incluido en la consulta por más de un motivo y primeros años del estudio.

Palabras clave:
Síndrome post-cuidados intensivos
Cuidador principal
Esfera física
Esfera cognitiva
Esfera psíquica
Calidad de vida


These are the options to access the full texts of the publication Medicina Intensiva (English Edition)
If you are a member of the Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias::
Go to the members area of the website of the SEMICYUC ( )and click the link to the magazine.

If you already have your login data, please click here .

If you have forgotten your password you can you can recover it by clicking here and selecting the option “I have forgotten my password”
Subscribe to

Medicina Intensiva (English Edition)

Purchase article

Purchasing article the PDF version will be downloaded

Price 19.34 €

Purchase now
Phone for subscriptions and reporting of errors
From Monday to Friday from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. (GMT + 1) except for the months of July and August which will be from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.
Calls from Spain
932 415 960
Calls from outside Spain
+34 932 415 960
Medicina Intensiva (English Edition)
Article options
Supplemental materials
es en

¿Es usted profesional sanitario apto para prescribir o dispensar medicamentos?

Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs?